Short History of Early Grand County

Taken from A History of the State of Colorado 1895


Middle park—taken from Ute Indians—a famous hunting ground—general


Grand County, which takes its name from the Grand River, was created by an
act of the territorial legislature, approved February 2nd, 1874. It was severed
 from the northern part of Summit County, and the seat located at Hot Sulphur
Springs, on Grand River. It is now bounded on the north by Larimer, south by
Clear Creek, Summit and Eagle, east by Gilpin, Boulder, Clear Creek and Larimer, 
and west by Routt. Its area is 2,100 square miles, and, by the census of 1890, had a
population of 604, an increase of 187 in the preceding decade. Originally, this 
county embraced both Middle and North Parks. In 1877 the western part was
segregated and Routt county organized. The Middle Park, or the present county,
was the favorite home and hunting ground of the northern Ute Indians. In 1868,
 by treaty previously concluded, these lands were relinquished. The Utes parted
 with this country very reluctantly, and it was only after a long struggle that they
were induced to relocate on a reservation provided for them on White river. Prior
to the invasion of the Park by white settlers, quadruped and other game abounded, elk, deer, mountain sheep, antelope, buffalo and all varieties of bear, including
grizzlies; grouse, sage hens, ducks, geese, turkeys, etc., whereby it will be readily
understood that the savages were extremely averse to its abandonment. It was, in
reality, the best hunting range in all the mountain region. It is watered by Grand 
River, a large and noble stream, fed by many strong tributaries; a beautiful and 
picturesque basin well grassed, and the mountains which surround it on all sides are heavily timbered. It is a lovely place in summer, and the winters are not rigorous except upon the ranges; there the snows fall to great depths. But one of the
principal attractions to the Indians was the large hot sulphur spring, to which
they resorted for the cure of various ailments: a broad circular pool of hot
steaming water, strongly impregnated with sulphur, soda and other minerals. It
’s fed by a constant flow from smaller springs in the neighboring hillside. The
temperature is no degrees Fahrenheit. Trout swarmed in all the streams, and
Grand Lake, in which Grand river takes its rise, contains thousands of these beautiful fish.

In the melting seasons, Grand river runs full to the height of its banks. The
Park being a sheltered retreat, well nigh inaccessible to their enemies, the Plains 
Indians, and possessing all the advantages which an Indian desires, it is not surprising that the Utes should have made vigorous efforts to retain it. When the
Pike’s Peak immigration came, and towns and trading posts were established, they brought out the furs and skins of animals they captured to exchange for coveted 
goods. Nevava, a brave and wise old man, was the chief of these tribes.

The valley of the Grand is very fertile, a fine grazing region, but not well
 adapted to agriculture because of the altitude, shortness of growing season and
 cool nights. Yet in certain quarters considerable tracts have been put under cultivation, ditches having been taken out to irrigate them. In 1889 there were about
 1,500 acres in grain and vegetables, wholly for local consumption. The Park is
 approximately fifty miles wide from east to west, by ninety miles in length north
to south, embracing, in addition to agricultural and grazing lands, large deposits
of iron, coal, petroleum, lime, granite and sandstones, with considerable belts
of lodes bearing gold, silver, lead and copper, with some extensive placers.
On all the mountain slopes are immense forests of pine and spruce timber. No
 part of this region has been touched by a constructed railway, though the Burling
ton & Missouri River company have surveyed and partly graded a line along the 
Grand Valley. The first railway line surveyed and located in the Territory of 
Colorado was by engineer Edward L. Berthoud, who, in May 1861, began at 
Golden City, twelve miles west of Denver, passed up Clear Creek, or Vasquez river,
to Berthoud Pass, down the western slope into the Park, and thence to Hot Sulphur 
Springs. During the same year he ran another line, but practically over the same
 route, to Gores Pass, thence to Bear and Snake rivers, to Williams Fork and on to 
Salt Lake City, as more fully set forth in the history of Jefferson County, Volume III, page 503. In 1865 General Bela M. Hughes partly constructed a stage road for
 Holiday’s Overland Express from Salt Lake, via Green river to Middle Park, but 
it was never occupied, indeed never completed.

Grand county unquestionably is the better-unoccupied portion of Colorado
for railway purposes, including local traffic. It forms the shortest route front
 Denver to Salt Lake and Ogden. When penetrated by steel thorough fares, it will 
become one of the great centers of production. The fact that it has no connection 
with the outer world, no outlet for its native resources except by long and rugged
 wagon roads over lofty ranges, has prevented multitudes from settling there. The 
main tributaries of Grand river are the Troublesome, Muddy, the Blue, Williams 
and Frazier. As already stated, the Grand heads in Grand Lake, a large sheet of
 pure, cold water, situated in the northeasterly part of the county, and, flowing
 southwesterly, unites with the Gunnison at Grand Junction in Mesa County.

As early as 1859 the hot sulphur springs were located, and in some sense
 claimed by William N. Byers, founder of the Rocky Mountain “News,” who still
retains them. In future time when the Park shall be traversed by railway trains,
 it will be made one of the chief sanitariums of the state. Mr. Byers has covered
 the main spring with a stone bathhouse. It is a superb fount of health-giving
 waters, where many remarkable cures have been affected. In 1866 Bayard Taylor
 made a pedestrian tour of this region and thus describes it in one of his letters:

“The sun came out, the clouds lifted and rolled away, and one of the most
remarkable landscapes of the earth was revealed to our view. The valley of the 
Blue, which for a length of 30 miles, with a breadth ranging from five to ten, lay
under our eyes, wore a tint of pearly silver-gray upon which the ripe green of the
 timber along the river and the scattered gleams of water seemed to be enameled.
 Opposite to us, above the sage color, rose huge mountain foundations, where the 
grassy openings were pale, the forests dark, the glens and gorges filled with shadow, the rocks touched with lines of light, making a checkered effect that suggested
cultivation and settlement. Beyond this were wild ridges, all forests; then bare
 masses of rock streaked with snow, and highest, bleak snow pyramids piercing the 
sky. From north to south stretches the sublime wall of the western boundary of Middle Park, and where it fell away toward the canon by which the Grand river goes forth to seek the Colorado, there was a vision of dim, rosy peaks a hundred miles distant. In the breadth of effect, in airy depth and expansion, in simple yet most
majestic outline, and in originality yet exquisite harmony of color, this landscape
 is unlike anything I have ever seen. There is a great vertical grandeur among 
the Alps; here it is the vast, lateral extent which impresses you, together with 
atmospheric effect occasioned by great elevation above the sea.”

Blue River, a magnificent stream, it may be observed in passing, rises under 
the shadow of Mount Lincoln, in the extreme south end of the Park. For twenty-
five miles its tributaries are numerous, among them the Snake, Swan and French
on the right, and Ten Mile on the left. The latter and the Snake empty into the 
Blue opposite one another, twenty-four miles from its source and ten miles below 

The first officers of Grand county were: Clerk and recorder, C. H. Hook; 
treasurer, W. N. Brown; county judge, David Young; sheriff, John Baker;
 assessor, Charles Fuller. The other offices were not filled.

A great belt of gold and silver mines, a few of which have been opened, are 
situated in the Rabbit Ear range, northwesterly from Hot Sulphur Springs. Some
 gold placers above Hahn’s Peak, now in Routt County, have been worked with 
very profitable results in past years. The silver mines on Rabbit Ear, especially 
the Wolverine, Endomide and a few others, have been sufficiently developed to 
demonstrate the strength of the veins and the value of the ores. These mines,
 however valuable they may be, can not be made profitable until facilities for reach
ing markets by rail shall have been supplied, and the same is true of all the other

William N. Byers and a trapper named Charles Utter, a bright, handsome
 and rather lively little fellow, known to all the early residents of the territory,
 were among the first to build cabins on Grand River. John S. Jones, whose family 
resided at Empire, owned some land near Utter’s place. Byers built a small log
 house at Hot Sulphur Springs in 1859. Another pioneer named J. L. Wescott went
 from Empire to these springs in 1865 and has ever since made Middle Park his
home. He built the first cabin at Grand Lake in 1867.

We are now impelled to record a series of events filled with contention, bloodshed, and horror. In approaching the subject I am aware that no account, how
ever accurate, written at this late day, will be accepted by all parties as a true
 narrative of the appalling tragedy, owing to the irreconcilable divisions of public 
sentiment that led up to it, traces of which exist to this day although many, indeed 
most, of the surviving actors, have removed from the county.* Nevertheless, the 
particulars following will be found correct in the main.

In 1874, when the county was created, Hot Sulphur Springs was the only
 settlement, and that a very small one. There were some herds of cattle and
 horses and a few widely separated cabins along Grand River below the springs.
In that year, however, a prospector, named Sandy Campbell, discovered a belt
 of excellent gold and silver mines in the Rabbit Ear range. From these developed,
in due course, a considerable degree .of activity which lasted a few years, then, because of their extreme isolation, died away. Rumors of Campbell’s find brought 
numerous accessions to the population. Among the residents at this time were
 Charles W. Royer, Charles H. Hook, Wm. S. Chamberlin, and John H. Stokes.
 Among the later arrivals were William Redman, his brother, Bass Redman, Cap
t. J. Dean and others.

The personal feuds, political and factional disturbances 
which led to fearful disorders and finally to wholesale murder began in 1877 
 and raged with constantly increasing bitterness until after the closing act in the awful drama, July 4th, 1883. In 1879 certain parties conceived and executed a 
plan to establish a rival town at Grand Lake in nearer proximity to the mines.
 Among them were William Redman, a savage, brutal character, John H. Stokes
and others who were not especially interested in the town of Hot Springs. The
 location of the new town became a fresh cause of malignant dissension. In the 
year last mentioned, eastern capitalists purchased the Wolverine mine, whose development gave promise of great value, and, in 1880, E. P. Weber came out as 
their representative and manager. He also bore a conspicuous part in hastening
events to a tragical issue.

Out of the mining boom came the founding of the 
town of Lulu on the North Fork, 12 miles from Grand Lake, which ultimately
 became a strong ally of Grand Lake in the contest against Hot Springs. Meantime, the town of Teller had been established in North Park, on the west side of
the range six miles westerly from Lulu, the seat of a mining district with a 
considerable population. It may be stated in passing, that both Lulu and Teller, 
as well as that of Gaskill, are now almost wholly deserted.

The Grand Lake people now felt strong enough, numerically, to change the 
county seat from Hot Springs to their town. The question was brought to a
 vote and carried in their favor by a small majority. Hot Springs, humiliated and 
embittered by the act, appealed to the courts, which decided against it The 
records and offices were removed to Grand Lake early in 1881. About this time
 E P. Weber entered the lists as an aggressive factor, when he and his friends came 
into violent collision with Bill Redman and his clan, through a dispute over a mining 

Joseph L. Wescott, the first settler, claimed 160 acres of land as a homestead 
but was not permitted to file upon it for the reason that the township had not been 
surveyed. The claimant of the adjoining section, a Mr. Anderson, had sold his
 improvements to Mrs. M. J. Young. Weber attempted to jump a portion of
 these claims, causing Wescott and Mrs. Young great annoyance, which, with other
 aggressions, rendered him extremely unpopular in the town, and he was equally 
out of favor at Hot Springs.

Among others to settle in the mining town of Teller was John G. Mills, a
brave but reckless man who had left Mississippi because of the killing lie had
 done there. He had been well educated, possessed much ability as a writer, had
studied law, and served some time as an editor. In 1880 the North Park was
claimed by both Larimer and Grand counties. In the election of that year a majority of its votes were cast with Grand, and Mills, being a candidate for county commissioner, was elected. In 1881 a factional quarrel split Teller into two distinct
parties, a very large majority being hostile to Mills. His adversaries, supported
by the North Park “Miner” published at Teller, and the only newspaper in the
county, fiercely attacked him and a wordy and threatening war resulted. Grand 
Lake, however, was almost unanimously favorable to Mills, which created intense
feeling between the two towns. In 1881 a general political disturbance occurred.

In the county election, Grand Lake came out victorious, re-electing Charles W.
Royer, sheriff, W. S. Chamberlin, treasurer, both Democrats and Lew W. Pollard
 (Republican), clerk. The superintendent of schools, the county judge (Hoyt) and
one commissioner also resided there. Royer remained at Hot Springs and ap¬
pointed Bill Redman undersheriff. Soon afterward the North Park “Miner” blazed 
with charges of malfeasance, speculation and mismanagement against the Grand Lake
 officials. This induced the latter to establish a paper of their own the “Prospector”
edited by Bailey & Smart, who took up their defense.

From the beginning of the
 campaign of 1882, the factional disturbances grew more and more violent. Hot 
Springs hated Grand Lake because of its rivalry, and Teller hated it through the popularity of Mills in that quarter. The balance of the population were about evenly
divided in sentiment. This year a commissioner was to be elected, and also two delegates to the Republican state convention. A mass meeting was held at Grand
Lake which nominated J. R. Godsmark, of Lulu, for commissioner, and J. G. Mills
 and Charles F. Caswell for delegates to the state convention. As will be remem
bered, Henry R. Wolcott was brought forward for the governorship by Senator
 N. P. Hill and his friends, and was opposed by Jerome 5. Chaffee, as the leader
 of the Republican party, and chairman of the central committee, consequently 
E. L. Campbell, of Lake, received the nomination after a heated contest Mills
 and Caswell favored Wolcott Shortly after the mass meeting just mentioned, a 
small number (only seven), it is said) met at Grand Lake and nominated E. P. Weber
 and Capt. T. J. Dean as delegates to the Republican convention. Being anti-
Wolcott, they were admitted to seats. During the discussion of the Grand county
 contest, Weber made a speech in which he charged Mills with being a murderer
 and a fugitive from justice. This was one of the direct causes of the impending crisis in which both lost their lives. Other personal and political outbreaks occurred in which most of the principal characters were involved, but it is unnecessary
to dwell upon them.

In January 1883, that fateful year, the board of county commissioners consisted of John G. Mills, chairman, Wilson Waldren, of Grand Lake, whose term
 was expiring (and in whose stead H. B. Rogerson had been elected), and Barney 
Day. The latter had been appointed in December to fill a vacancy caused by the 
resignation of John Kinsey. In January 1883, Rogerson resigned and E. P. Weber
 was appointed in his place. This was a severe blow to the Grand Lake faction, 
which had no love for Weber. Matters went on from bad to worse, until public 
feeling reached a very dangerous stage.

At length, a report was sent broadcast 
that Weber and Day proposed holding a special meeting for the purpose of ousting the county clerk and treasurer, upon an alleged insufficiency of their official 
bonds, but without notifying chairman Mills. The meeting was held next day
 but a discussion arose between Weber and Pollard, the clerk, as to its legality,
 the latter finally refusing to produce the records or to act as their clerk. Weber
admitted the informality, and it was at length decided to fix a date for a special 
session, and the clerk was instructed to advise Mr. Mills thereof. Again the two
 newspapers broke out in charges and counter-charges; other events occurred to 
inflame the public mind, some arrests were made, etc.

On Monday, July 2nd, 1883, the full board of commissioners met in the
office of the clerk at Grand Lake. Many people had arrived from neighboring
 towns. The clerk (Pollard) being absent, his duties were performed by his deputy, Mr. C. F. Caswell. The room was crowded with interested observers. The
session passed off quietly.

At nine o’clock next morning (3rd) the board re¬
convened. Mills, however, stated that Mr. Caswell and himself had been retained
as counsel in a divorce suit to be tried that day before the county court, and asked 
that they be excused. Mr. Weber, who had met while being chairman, assented,
 saying that he and Day would merely look over the assessment schedule and make 
notes of any matters they might consider necessary to be brought before the full 
board. Weber and Day, in company with Capt. Dean and E. M. Harman, who
 acted as their clerk, spent the day in consideration of matters before them. About
 dusk, an order was handed to Sheriff Royer directing him to appear before the
board and show cause why his bond should not be declared insufficient. This
was the first intimation of bad faith on their part, and naturally led to great excitement among the factions. This was increased when it became known that
 orders of like import had been prepared for service upon the county clerk, treasurer and judge, with certain precinct officers, for it then became only too apparent
 that Weber and Day and Dean had taken advantage of the absence of Mills and 
Caswell to accomplish their long threatened purpose. Everyone realized that
 nothing but a miracle could prevent bloodshed.

We now come to the final act, and, in order that it may be made entirely clear
to the reader, quote the description of the battleground and the events of the
 tragedy direct from the article in the “Sun” here to fore mentioned, because it is
correct in every essential particular: “Grand Lake is, in shape, nearly elliptical. The townsite is situated on the north shore. From the shore the land rises moderately, forming a ridge, and
descending again extends into a flat expanse. This ridge extends around the
 west shore of the lake to within about 200 yards of the Fairview house, at that 
time the leading hotel, owned by Mrs. Young. It was situated on the property
which Weber had endeavored to jump. At this place Weber, Dean, Day and many
 Teller and Gaskill people were stopping. The distance from the hotel to the courthouse is about three-fourths of a mile.

On the townsite the ridge mentioned is
 situated between the road and the lake, but, on turning to follow the western shore, 
the road crosses the ridge and lies between it and the lake. It has been said that 
this ridge ends about 200 yards from the Fairview house. It would be perhaps
a better description to say that the ascending shore gradually grew more level,
 thus obliterating the ridge. In consequence, in traveling from the Fairview house 
toward the town, at a distance of about 200 yards the road began to descend into 
a hollow, and at an equal distance farther the traveler finds on his left a wooded
ridge, and close on his right the lake. On the summit of the ridge is a mass of
 rocks, and from that rocky point the hotel and surroundings are in full view. At
 that time in the hollow by the roadside, and touched by the waters of the lake 
during the spring, was an old claim cabin used as an icehouse.

“The Fourth of July, 1883, dawned bright and clear at Grand Lake. It was
 one of the most beautiful days ever seen in the mountains. Before and after breakfast the guests of the Fairview house were indulging in much revolver shooting
 in honor of the day. The cracking of cartridges was also heard from all other parts 
of the lake. Consequently, when, about nine o’clock, a sudden fusilade of a dozen or 
fifteen shots was heard, it created no comment until a man rushed up to Deputy
 Sheriff Max James, of Teller, who was at the Fairview house, and exclaimed that
Weber had been shot. Just where the road commenced its descent Weber was
   found lying on his face. He had been shot through the right lung. Further on 
in the hollow Dean was found lying in a pool of blood. He had been shot in the 
bridge of the nose, the ball lodging in his head; a second ball had completely shattered his hip-bone. In addition, his head was badly cut by blows from some instrument, probably the butt of a revolver. At the corner of the ice house, with his
head in the lake, was the body of Barney Day. He had been shot through the 

In the center of the road was a second corpse, afterward recognized as 
John G. Mills. He had been shot through the head and the brains were oozing
 out into the road. The mask covering his face had been burned by the shot that
 killed him. By his side was a single shot Sharpe’s rifle containing an empty shell.
 His clothing was covered with a suit of ducking, the coat being so fastened by pieces 
of rope that it would have been impossible for him to get at his revolver which was
 strapped to him under the ducking. A flour sack with holes cut for the eyes and
 mouth was drawn over the head and fastened around the neck with a piece of rope.
Behind the rock on the ridge was found a rope, and the indentations in the soil 
showed that several persons had been standing or kneeling there. A trail of blood
was found and followed for about 300 yards to the outlet of the lake, where it was
lost. In following the trail a second mask, similar to the one on Mills, was picked 
up, and there were evidences that a horse had been fastened there.

“The bodies of the dead men were removed to town and the wounded taken
 to the Fairview house. Dr. H. F. Frisius, an able physician and surgeon, happened 
to be at Gaskill, and he was sent for. Weber never spoke after being placed in 
bed, and sank steadily till about midnight, when he died. Dean made a strong fight for his life, but the severe wounds he had received were too much even for his
 undaunted pluck and strong constitution, and he died on the 17th following. Soon 
after the shooting, nearly the entire population of Grand Lake and the visitors were
 on the scene. There was one notable exception, Undersheriff Redman did not

It was afterward made clearly evident that the sheriff, Charles W. Royer,
had been with the assassins and had taken part in killing Barney Day. “A messenger was immediately dispatched to Hot Springs with the horrible intelligence,
 which created the wildest excitement.” From a resident of Hot Springs, I learn
the following details. Charley Royer immediately after the murders rode to the 
springs and had been there an hour or more before the messenger reached the
 place. He stopped at the house of Walker McQueary, four miles above the springs,
 and when he rode up to Walker’s door his horse was literally reeking with perspiration, showing that he had been urged to his utmost speed. Royer talked with
 McQueary, who asked him whence he came in such hot haste, referring to the distressed condition of his horse. Royer said he came from Grand Lake. McQueary then inquired: “What news from that section; what are the county commissioners
doing?” He replied that there was no special news, everything was quiet, the commissioners were holding a meeting, etc. But through it all, he exhibited great nervous excitement. After resting his horse, he rode on to the springs, where he
answered similar questions in about the same manner. An hour or so later came
 the messenger from Grand Lake, bearing the details of the fight, which set the town 
in a fearful uproar. Royer at first endeavored to discredit the report, but soon 
after became sullenly silent, refusing to talk about it.  Another messenger proceeded across the range to Georgetown and there telegraphed the horrible in
telligence to Denver, where it created an intense feeling.

“At the coroner’s inquest very little light was thrown on the affair. Dean 
made a statement to the effect that the three had reached the ice house when a shot
 was heard. Weber exclaimed, ‘I am shot,’ when Day and Dean caught him and
 were lowering him to the ground when they also were attacked by three masked
 men, and the fight became general. Day’s revolver showed four empty shells and 
Dean’s one.”

Royer, in his anxiety to conceal the facts, gave a number of theories as to the 
manner in which the killing was done. All the circumstances indicated that there
 were from six to nine men in the attacking party, although only three took active part 
in the shooting. It was also among the theories that Royer stood near the ice 
house, and that when Day, after being shot by his assailants, ran in that direction,
he was finished by a shot from Royer’s rifle. Charles H. Hook was charged with 
complicity in the murders, but he was in Denver at the time, hence the charge
 was without foundation in fact. That the wounded man whose trail had been strewn 
with blood was Bill Redman no one for a moment doubted. Long afterward,
 from information furnished by detectives and others who followed his traces in the
 hope of a large reward, it was made known that Redman fled to the mountains
 and was concealed in a prospector’s cabin about four miles northwest of Grand
Lake, and that his wounds were dressed by a doctor who had been taken from the
latter place by Redman’s friends and kept there until his patient was able to travel.
 He was then taken by his brother, Bass Redman, through Middle and Egeria
 Parks to a hiding place on the northern foot of the Flat Top mountain, where he 
remained some time and then went further west into the edge of Utah, where an 
unknown man was killed or committed suicide (which, was never known), and his
  body left to represent that of Redman. There they left one of the saddles that had
been taken away from Grand Lake on the day of the murders, and also a worn out
 pony. Written in the sand with a stick was the name “William Redman,” and the
 same, scrawled upon a scrap of paper, was pinned to the saddle. After careful 
investigation, the body was found to be that of a man who had wandered to the place had either been slain by others or by his own hand, and Redman, passing that
 way, used it to check further search ior himself. He was next heard of in a
hiding place between the Yampa and White rivers in the southwestern part of
 Routt County, where he spent a part of the following winter. In the spring he
 went north to the Sweetwater mining country in western Wyoming, and thence
 south through western Colorado and New Mexico into Arizona. His brother, Bass,
returned to Missouri.

Although some attempts were made by the district attorney and the courts to
 develop all the facts of this frightful affair and bring the guilty to punishment,
nothing ever came of them.

On the 16th of July, eleven days after the massacre. Sheriff Royer, being in
Georgetown, committed suicide by shooting himself through the head, making the
 fifth victim of the tragedy. He was not a bad man at heart, and was generally 
popular in both communities. Redman, on the contrary, was a large, muscular 
man, six feet tall, “with a great deal of the savage in his nature. He was faithful to
 his friends, but his hatred of his enemies was of a type that caused him to commit 
the most brutal deeds when an opportunity for revenge presented itself.”

Such is the story in brief of one of the most terrible crimes that has reddened the records of our commonwealth. Three county commissioners and their clerk
 assassinated in the broad daylight of our national anniversary, the sheriff slain by
 his own hand, the others immediately concerned in the plot fugitives from justice,
and all the result of political animosities that might easily have been adjusted by
 the ordinary exercise of rational judgment.

On the 19th of July, Grand county being virtually without officers, a deputation 
of citizens from that section, composed of L. C. Pollard, W. S. Chamberlin
 and C. H. Hook with Wm. N. Byers, waited upon Governor James B. Grant to
 suggest the names of parties for appointment to the vacant offices. In due course
 the governor appointed Samuel Moffett in place of J. G. Mills, G. W. Hertel in place
of E. P. Weber, and T. Webb Preston in place of Barney Day, and these commissioners were authorized to select a sheriff.

The county seat was removed back to Hot Springs, December 16th, 1888,
as the result of a vote taken at the November election of that year.

In 1890 the total assessed valuation of taxable property in Grand County was
 $432,707. In the schedule then returned to the auditor of state there were 27,867
 acres of agricultural land, 1.843 horses, 9,973 cattle, and 2,208 sheep.

The school census of 1890 shows a total school population of 129, with an enrollment of 59. There were six school districts and five buildings, the latter valued
at $2,025.

The officers for 1890-91 were: Clerk, J. N. Pettingell; treasurer, Wm. P.
 Farris; county judge, David Bock; assessor, N. N. Buttolph; sheriff. Walker
 McQueary; coroner, John O. Feltcrs; superintendent of schools, Oliver Neidham;
surveyor, L. D. C. Gaskell; clerk of the district court, David Bock; commissioners,
Henry Lehman, Frank M. Smith and Frank S. Byers.

The principal route to Middle Park is by a wagon road from Georgetown via
Empire and Berthoud Pass. It was commenced July 16th, 1874, and the first stage
passed over it to Hot Sulphur Springs November 18th following. It was built
by a company of which W. H. Cushman was president, and Thomas Guanella,
 secretary, nearly all the funds being furnished by residents of Georgetown.

Here is the URL to the book History of the State of Colorado published in 1895 by Frank Hall. Early Grand County part of document is on page 136.



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